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Metal Casting Technologies : September 2006
80 TECHNICAL FEATURE Properties of test materials The material properties used in the simulation are those for cement bonded castable "HS" and phosphate bonded castable "SB" and are summarized in Table 5. The cement bonded material is an andalusite based LCC which had been supplied by the manufacturer in a dried "ready to install" state. The phosphate bonded material is a mullite based two component mono-phosphate castable as shown by reaction 1, Table 2, with 61% alumina and 4.5% P2O5 content. The yield stress under tensile loading conditions is taken to be temperature dependent and is summarized in Table 6 and 7. The yield stress under compressive loading is assumed to be a factor of 10 higher. RESULTS FEM Analysis for the Andalusite HS burner tile From the simulations it turned out that most of the damage occurred within the first hour of heat up. Figure 5 gives the calculated temperature contours after one hour of heat-up. Calculated displacements have been scaled by a factor of 50 so that one can clearly see the trumpet like shape of the burner block. Highest stresses occur in circumferential direction. Figure 6 gives the calculated stresses in the circumferential direction. Calculated stresses are close to the yield stress limit for much of the outer burner block region. The calculated plastic deformation depicted in Figure 7 indicates where cracks are most likely to be initiated. Notice that crack deformation in reality may be more severe because of the brittle nature of ceramics in which the calculated regions with plastic deformation fail to carry any normal stresses. Figure 5. Temperature contours after one hour of heat up (°K). A displacement-scaling factor of 50 was used. www.metals.rala.com.au Temperature Yield Strain V- modulus (ºC) stress (10-3) (N/mm2) (MPa) 200 (70°F) 5.7 0.6 9618 600 (1100°F) 11.1 1.2 9502 800 (1500°F) 7.9 0.8 10368 1100 (2000°F) 5.1 1.4 3596 Table 7. The temperature dependent yield stress under tensile loading conditions for Phosphate bonded SB. Table 5. Material properties of test material Andalusite Phosphate HS Bonded SB Density 2450 kg/m3 2360 kg/m3 Thermal expansion 6.6e-6 K-1 5.5e-6 K-1 Thermal conductivity 1.4 W/mK 1.7 W/mK Specific heat 1000 J/kgK 1015 J/kgK Poisson's ratio 0.3 0.3 Temperature Yield Strain V- modulus (ºC) stress (10-3) (N/mm2) (MPa) 20 (70°F) 14 0.5 28 000 400 (750°F) 15 0.7 21 428 800 (1500°F) 16 0.8 20 000 1000 (1800°F) 18 2.5 7 200 1200 (2200°F) 11 13.8 797 Table 6. The temperature dependent yield stress under tensile loading conditions for LCC Andalusite HS.