by clicking the arrows at the side of the page, or by using the toolbar.
by clicking anywhere on the page.
by dragging the page around when zoomed in.
by clicking anywhere on the page when zoomed in.
web sites or send emails by clicking on hyperlinks.
Email this page to a friend
Search this issue
Index - jump to page or section
Archive - view past issues
button in toolbar for more information.
Metal Casting Technologies : December 2006
METAL Casting Technologies December 2006 25 Climate (ARRPEEC). Its within-country and inter-regional estimates of CO2 reductions have provided the basis for China-India comparisons (and other Asian countries), while identifying chief emitting sub-sectors and equipment. Aimed at policy makers, ARRPEEC's study examined 3 possible courses of action - good or improved 'house-keeping', changing to lower CO2 emitting fuels, and replacing present equipment with highly energy efficient, environmentally- friendly equipment. ARRPEEC found that the majority of the domestic industries of both countries are labour intensive and users of highly inefficient, outdated technology. China was the much larger producer of CO2, due to its higher productivity and CO2 production per unit of product. And, despite some methodological concerns governing plant to sector extrapolation, both countries' foundry sectors dominate regional or Asia-wide GHG emissions. China's cupola furnaces, and India's induction furnaces were identified as chief sources of industry emissions. Recommendations included replacing present fuel with natural gas, improved housekeeping for the ductile iron foundries, waste heat recovery for cupola furnaces, moving foundries to the outer suburbs, banning of particular types of brick kilns, and closing down very small, inefficient brick making firms. CHINA In addition to the ARRPEEC profile, the Chinese domestic foundry industry does not as a whole employ the 3-R principle. As well, the government energy and environmental protection legislation is weak. Given the numbers employed throughout the industry, with high unemployment in some areas, many do not favour increased automation. Politically, government engagement of environmental NGOs has only recently and tentatively occurred; however, the affected population apparently have no recourse of complaint through the courts. Further development is indicated by greenfield sites at Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Shandong, Jiangxi and Anhui provinces. Foreign foundries, in comparison, are usually large, well-financed, much more energy efficient concerns. Most generally comply with the raft of 15 applicable Chinese laws or standards, of which none are solely geared to the industry. Some foreign firms have taken advantage of the weaker protections, but will be increasingly named and fined for this. Others, taking corporate social responsibility seriously, have installed systems considerably in advance of local minimum requirements. Yet, there is still room for improvement amongst many foreign firms. If there is available within China a model 'green' foundry, it is more likely to come from the foreign firms. However, none yet appear to be available. Lost foam moulding Courtesy of GEF Lost foam moulding line Courtesy of GEF