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Metal Casting Technologies : December 2006
METAL Casting Technologies December 2006 ENVIRONMENTAL FEATURE CO2 Ministration Project for Small Scale Foundries Since 2000, the Global Environment Fund (GEF), in conjunction with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), have developed a CO2 ministration project for the small scale foundry industry, part of the town and village enterprises (TVE) throughout China. An estimated 22 million TVEs contribute to 30% of GDP, 136 million jobs and are responsible for over half the total output in the building materials (including brick), coking and metal casting sectors. These major TVE sectors account for one sixth of China's total emissions of CO2. The objective was to reduce green house gas emissions in the TVE sector by increasing the utilisation of energy efficient technologies and products in the brick, cement, metal casting and coking sectors. The metal casting sector proved highly complex and the most intractable, and realised the lowest returns in energy efficiency and CO2 reductions (see table page 28). The programme included education and training, local and foreign expert assistance, and the building of pilot equipment. Co-financed by the GEF, the national and local governments, and the Agricultural Bank of China, it included a revolving capital fund and interest free loans. To date, replications or retrofitting of metal casting foundry furnaces have occurred in 15 different firms. Interestingly, despite the earlier ARRPEEC findings and recommendations for the Chinese brick industry, it appears that the authorities decided not to close any brick producers. According to the UNDP, the project has achieved good results in terms of overall CO2 reduction, along with the processes and technology transfer having taken root. The project will formally cease in March 2007, with a planned follow up, though the date for this has not yet been fixed. Dust For older facilities, dust emissions remain a problem. However, more advanced firms utilise standard vacuum devices to collect dust from the exhaust. A proportion is recycled as coating on molds, while the remainder is sold to contracted waste management firms. Wastewater Waste water is treated according to government regulations. Some is recycled, while the remainder is released into local rivers. Solid waste Most slag waste is normally recycled in the form of building brick material. Often, slag is ground into dust, and compounds are added to make into bricks. This is normally performed by Example of ASIMCO (China) foundry process. 26