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Metal Casting Technologies : December 2006
METAL Casting Technologies December 2006 ENVIRONMENTAL FEATURE As well, where some workshop owners have felt the standard to be too stringent, local authorities have been willing to compromise this. Yet, changes have been brought about and continue to be brought about by very strong social and legal activism, aided by environmental NGOs, who have utilised the courts to cause the Indian government to act on the people's behalf. Some of the results of this has been the improvement to the Taj Mahal corridor, and the forced closure and relocation of around 50 foundries to 50 kms outside the suburbs surrounding this iconic landmark. Other response has been in relation to common effluent treatment plants (CETP) to handle waste water. Much of these have tended to be the small scale foundries, which fall outside government environment impact assessment (EIA) requirements. The government is hampered by insufficient financial resources to effectively manage regulation. As most Indian foundries are small eg. around 66% of Indian foundries, they pollute almost unabated. Reportedly, around 5% of Indian foundries have adopted pollution control measures. Government incentive schemes vary according to state policy, each with differing degrees of stringency. Incentives generally include provision of land, reduced power costs, as well as for the adoption of pollution control measures. Specifically, there is 25% subsidy on capital expenditure for such equipment, and complete depreciation within one year. Generally, the cost for such capital expenditure to large and small scale firms is between 2-5% and 10% respectively. A more stringent standard for SPM has been introduced within the past 2-5 years, but its effect has not yet been felt at ground level. In conjunction, there is a gradual shift to use of natural gas as with New Delhi and Bangalore, which now reportedly has the cleanest air in India. However, the new standard will need between 20-30 years before its full effect is felt. In terms of clusterisation, this is encouraged by the government, with its financial incentives having some impact. Source for India: Energy Information Administration, Energy & Resources Institute, Institute of Indian Foundrymen Source for China: China Foundry Association Yearbook 2000, Energy Information Administration, Global Environment Fund, 39th Census World Casting Production Casting with a fork-lift. Courtesy of GEF 28 LONG ROAD TO CLEANER PRODUCTION CHINA INDIA Total National Annual Castings Production 22, 420,452 million metric tons (2004) 6.01 million metric tons National CO2 Production 4.7 billion metric tons 1,025 million metric tons (2003) Small Scale Foundry Sector Production 1000 ton/year (est. TVE-metal casting average) 2.4 million metric tons CO2 Emissions Reduction 31,000 tons/ year (TVE-metal casting) 11, 000 tons (2004) No. Replication Foundries 15 (TVE-metal casting) 16 Mean Age Of Equipment/Foundries TVEs-21 years 10-15 years (av) Major Clusters No data available Greater Mumbai, Belgaum, Kolhapur, Pune, Ahmedabad, Rajkot, Baroda, Agra, Batala, Ludhiana, Jalandhar, Howrah, Kolkata, Coimbatore, Bangalore, Gurdaon, Chennai,Vijayawada.