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Metal Casting Technologies : December 2006
METAL Casting Technologies December 2006 ENVIRONMENTAL FEATURE There are 20 major clusters. A greenfield site in Noida has been identified. While no model 'green' foundry can be pinpointed, some oft-quoted examples of foundries with a good environmental record include local companies Sundram, Bharat Forge and Tata. Co2 Reduction Using Improved Design Since 1994, the Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) in conjunction with the Swiss Agency for Development Co-operation (SADC) and private organisations, have been working on energy efficient cupola furnace design for grey iron foundries in Howrah, India's largest foundry cluster. Numerous aspects were identified as reasons for their poor performance -- incorrect selection of the blower, improper distribution of air, lack of control on feed materials, no effective gas-cleaning devices, and poor operating and maintenance practices. This resulted in suspended particulate matter (SPM) being higher than the government's recommended standard. TERI's technical solution was the development of an improved cupola prototype, the DBC or the divided blast cupola, which supplies an air blast at two levels. In tandem with other design modifications in the DBC, along with a venturi scrubber-based pollution control system, results have seen improved energy efficiency and decreased CO2 emissions. To date, replications or retrofitting of metal casting foundry furnaces have occurred in 16 different firms, in the major foundry clusters (see table on page 28). Additional support for the programme was achieved by involvement of foreign and local expertise, and NGOs. Dust Highly dependent on the type of foundry, this generally is used for making roads, while the remainder ends in landfill. Wastewater One solution has been the requirement of a common effluent treatment plant (CETP), located within clusters. However, their effectiveness is small, as they are not uniformally effective. This is due to the fact that all plants within the cluster release different types of effluent, dramatically decreasing CETP effectiveness. In response to the ensuing legal action, the Indian government now requires firms operating within clusters to set up a preliminary treatment plant, before effluent proceeds to the CETP. Solid waste Much of the slag is reused in cement manufacture, while some low grade metal industries attempt extraction of iron or steel from the slag. However, this is a particularly unclean process. The larger proportion of slag tends to end up in landfill. ● A newly renovated mechanical casting line. Foundry TVE prior to Renovation. Courtesy of GEF Courtesy of GEF 30