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Metal Casting Technologies : March 2005
life. The general reasons for failure may include one or more of the following: incorrect design and/or incorrect materials selection faults in processing or fabrication which give rise to defects and/or incorrect microstructures faults in assembly and/or commissioning inadequate QA and/or testing & inspection procedures incorrect use inadequate maintenance mechanical and/or chemical and/or thermal and/or other damage before and during service. Failures will occur when the design cannot cope with service demands due to inadequate design and/or due to unforeseen conditions. Design errors may arise from: inadequate stress analysis non recognition of built in stress raisers lack of understanding of materials property data and specifications lack of understanding of the effects of different processing conditions on properties use of static tensile properties as a basis for the design instead of significant material properties that quantify resistance to each potential failure mode in service ineffective design review and verification, etc. Unforeseen circumstances may arise due to incorrect use, accidental damage, inadequate or misdirected maintenance, improper modification or repair, incomplete and/or incorrect information about service conditions being provided at the design stage, etc. Failures due to faults in production and assembly etc. of correctly designed components should be avoided by correct use of process control and QA procedures. However they can and do occur and in the case of engineering alloys in general may include: flaws due to faulty composition, e.g. casting out of alloy specification, undetected presence of damaging residual impurities defects originating from ingot production or casting, e.g. unsoundness, inclusions, gas porosity, segregation, tears, etc. defects arising during mechanical working, e.g. laps, seams, cracks, excess local plastic deformation, etc. defects from grinding, machining, etc., e.g. poor surface finish, burnt surfaces, cracks, tearing. defects in joining, e.g. porosity, undercuts, cracks, residual stresses, lack of penetration, heat affected zone, etc. defects from thermal treatments, e.g. overheating, grain growth, decarburisation, quench cracks, soft spots, residual stresses, etc. defects from surface treatments, e.g. incorrect coating, uneven thickness, contamination, pitting damage, hydrogen damage. Trust your most complex cores to INCAST®. The ideal combination of geometry, density and particle size distribution, INCAST improves critical core making and casting properties including binder utilization, permeability and dimensional stability. Higher strength cores, better surface finish and increased efficiency and yield are the INCAST advantages. These sands are engineered for the metalcaster. Optimize Core Performance Unimin Australia Limited Tel.: +613 9586 5400 Fax: +613 9586 5411 E-mail: email@example.com Worldwide: www.metalcaster.com CORE AND MOULDING SANDS ® INCAST is a trademark. All rights reserved. ©2003 ®