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Metal Casting Technologies : December 2007
METAL Casting Technologies December 2007 30 Sector Energy consumption in Mtce Projected production growth rate Energy efficiency gap compared to [in %] Share of TVE in total sector energy consumption [% p.a.] 1995 Local state-of-the-art International state-of-art Brick 79 2-5% 28 37 58% across the board Cement 27 2-5% 40 57 Coking 54 2% 28 48 Metal casting 3.4 2% 16 45 Sector Technology Type of Product Production Scale Metal Casting 80% of enterprises use blast-cold cupola furnaces, 20% use blast-heating cupola furnaces. On average, 6.2% of staff are trained technicians. Broad range: casting pipes, plumb castings, spin appliances, auto fittings, boiler fittings and gear fittings. 9 enterprises produce more than 5000-ton casting/year; 6 less than 5000-ton casting/year. For reference, total energy consumption in China was approximately 1300Mtce in 1995 Source: ERI Progress Reports, own calculations (United Nations Development Program; Project - Energy Conservation and GHG Emissions Reduction in Township and Village Enterprise Industries (TVE) in China) Table 1: Summary of energy trends in the four TVE sectors Table 2: Summary of company technology and product data Source: United Nations Development Program; Project - Energy Conservation and GHG Emissions Reduction in Township and Village Enterprise Industries (TVE) in China Project Global Benefits Project pilot projects Annual reduction from pilots [t CO2] Sector-wide replication [million tons CO2 p.a.] Brick (2 projects) 13,937 31.90 Cement (3 projects) 51,619 18.33 Coking (1 project) 16,133 5.43 Metal casting (2 projects) 2,530 0.44 Total annual phase 2 reductions [t CO2] 84,220 Total annual sector potential [Mt CO2] 56.10 Project reductions as % of total potential 0.15% Incremental costs [$/tCO2] 10.68 0.02 Notes: Based on the phase II global benefits and assuming a 10 year project life-time. Table 3: Global project benefits and total, sector-wide potential Source: United Nations Development Program; Project - Energy Conservation and GHG Emissions Reduction in Township and Village Enterprise Industries (TVE) in China General technological sophistication Plant components Backward Less backward General level Advanced level Workshop Shabby Crown block Standard workshop Standard workshop Typical scale (ton/year) 1000 3000 5000 7000 Cupola Self-made cold-blast cupola Cold-blast cupola High-efficiency cupola Micro-computer burden hot cupola in smelting or cupola and electrical furnace duplex smelting Sand processing system None None Mechanised sand processing system Complete sand processing system Molding Manual molding manual molding and a few mechanised molding in addition, Mechanised molding Mechanised and automatic molding production line Detector None Very few Has most of detecting instruments Complete measuring and detecting instruments Table 4: Technical characteristics of foundry equipment Source: United Nations Development Program; Project - Energy Conservation and GHG Emissions Reduction in Township and Village Enterprise Industries (TVE) in China Environmental Report