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Metal Casting Technologies : December 2007
METAL Casting Technologies December 2007 35 Without project With project Capacity (tons/year) 8,003 8,003 Mechanisation Manual or semi-mechanisation Semi-mechanisation Reject rate 14% 6% Number of employees 545 477 Productivity (tons/year/person) 14.7 16.8 Cupola Cold cupola Hot cupola or cupla + induce furnace duplexing Sand processing system Ill controlled Well controlled Energy items Without project With project Coke (tons) 2,569 1,923 Coal (tons) 1,712 870 Electricity (MWh) 500 320 Oil (tons) 581 570 Total energy consumption (TCE) 4,769 3,449 Energy consumption per ton of castings (TCE) 0.596 0.431 Annual CO2 emission (tons carbon) 3,340 2,385 Source: Energy efficiency and CO2 abatement in China township and village foundries -- a case study by Mingshan Su, Jing Deng and Jiankun He of the Energy Environment Economy Institute, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China. Published in Global Energy Issues, Vol.21, Nos. 1-2, 2004. discount rate of 10 per cent would be minus 2.14 million yuan. In the calculation a discount rate is applied which reflects the opportunities cost of investment resources in the N Municipality of Jiangsu Province. The study said, "This means that China does not have the incentive to do the project if there is no financial support from outside to promote energy conservation and carbon dioxide emission abatement." The retrofit project would bring considerable energy conservation benefit and carbon dioxide abatement. The energy consumption per ton of casting would decrease from 0.596 to 0.431 ton of coal equivalent. As a result, 18,236 tons of carbon of CO2 would be abated over a 20 year lifecycle. The abatement cost is 268 RMB yuan per ton of carbon. The study reported that financial barriers are among various barriers to energy conservation in the foundry studied. It said energy conservation programmes are usually based on advanced technology as well as more initial investment and higher operational costs. "But TVFs usually have insufficient investment resources and their financing capacity is limited. As in the case of the LMN foundry, the results of cost benefit analysis show that the foundry did not have the financial incentive to invest in it." Table 12: Technical indicators with and without project Source: Energy efficiency and CO2 abatement in China township and village foundries -- a case study by Mingshan Su, Jing Deng and Jiankun He of the Energy Environment Economy Institute, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China. Published in Global Energy Issues, Vol.21, Nos. 1-2, 2004. Table 13: Energy consumption with and without project Overall, Town & Village Enterprises in the building materials, coking and metal casting sectors account for one sixth of China's total emissions of CO2.